Date: 10 October, 2020
Team – FALCON
Venue: Aviation Lab, AIET
REPORT ON AEROMODELLING PROJECT
This report describes the final design produced by the FALCON team. It was a great opportunity for the team to gain real world engineering experience through collaborative design. In this particular project, the design objective is to develop a remote – controlled aircraft to take off, maneuver and land predictably. Along the way, cadets learned important lessons in aerodynamics and structural design, team organisation, time management and manufacturing.
The objective of this project was to introduce precision manufacturing techniques to the development of a RC aircraft in order to optimize its aerodynamics performance.
- Generate sufficient lift
- Minimize drag effects
- Maintain longitudinal and vertical static stability
- Provide adequate maneuverability
- Achieve the necessary structural strength
- Minimize the overall weight
- Take off and land within distance constraints
The team identified manufacturing as an important means to fabricating an airplane that will satisfy the stated objectives and perform well in flight.
- Depron sheets (5mm and 3mm)
- Glue gun
- Motor: 22 12 T13 1800Kv
- Balsa wood (Spar)
3. PROCEEDING STEPS:
Before construction began, the cadets had to cut out the shapes according to the blueprint given. Parts like Fuselage, Wing, Stabilizers, etc were stuck together with precision as to not take too much space while connecting them. These were then added to the depron sheets and a final cut out was made in the depron sheets. The teams design process was performed one component at a time, in an effort to guarantee a high-performance level for each element of the project.
4. WING PLANFORM:
The planform of a wing, or its top down planar area, contributes significantly to its aerodynamic performance, particularly in terms of drag. Thus, the selection of the best planform will allow the team to satisfy objective 2. The different planform are shown below.
In terms of aerodynamic performance, the elliptical wing allows for the greatest drag mitigation, followed by the tapered planform. However, the team went on with rectangular planform, following the blueprint given.
- WING CONFIGURATION:
The wing was placed above the fuselage, providing an advantage as it leaves the fuselage open for payload and component housing. This configuration would allow the team to locate the payload near to the centre of gravity of the entire airplane, which is very advantageous from a longitudinal stability perspective. Additionally, the high placement of the wing allows the wing to be easily removable.
- TAIL CONFIGURATION:
The fulfilment of objective 3 requires the addition of two primary stabilizing components, the horizontal and vertical stabilizers. The horizontal stabilizers provide longitudinal stability in pitch, which is a rotation that moves the nose up or down. The vertical stabilizer provides stability in yaw, which is a rotation which moves the nose left or right.
- CONTROL SURFACES:
The motions that must be controlled are rolling, yawing and pitching motions of the airplane. Ailerons were implemented to control the rolling motion, a rudder to control the yawing motion and an elevator to control the pitch motion. Maintaining maneuverability and control of the aircraft during flight, identifies as objective 4.
The fuselage is the backbone of an airplane; it serves as a connecting piece for the engine, wing and as a tail as well as housing for payload and other components. This body is a geometrically large piece of the total project and will experience significant loading during landing. Thus, there are many weights, aerodynamic and structural considerations that must be addressed in the design of a fuselage. In summation, the fuselage must be designed properly in order to successfully meet objectives 2, 3, 5 and 6. The team made it a priority, therefore, to design the fuselage to approximate the shape of a symmetrical airfoil. It was manufactured to be lightweight yet strong by selecting depron sheets.
6. CENTER OF GRAVITY TESTING:
In order to determine the location of the aircraft centre of gravity (CG), which, must be placed properly to achieve longitudinal static stability. This was achieved by placing two fingers below the main wings after adding the motor and the electrical components.
7. DEXTER BLUEPRINT:
8. PHOTO GALLERY: